Development and Validation of a Self-Concept Scale for College Students Using Comics Superhero Characters
Keywords:self-concept, comics superhero, Characters
Self-concept refers to the domain of self-descriptions that have self-evaluative connotation. Though many researchers embarked in the study of self-concept, and some even developed tests that measured self-concept, majority of these instruments had methodological and theoretical problems due to lack of systematic instrument development and presentation. The objective of the study is to develop a reliable and valid alternative approach to measuring the self in a semi-structured undisguised comics-type test that directly accounts for the way college students consider their choices of superheroes’ traits that characterizes their own. A preliminary survey on self-concept, in a form of open-ended statements was conducted to five hundred ninety-eight (598) college students of selected schools in Manila and Bulacan to know how college students see themselves indicatory of their self-concepts. Results of which, were collated to form the preliminary form. The preliminary form of the SCSS was administered to five hundred ninety-five (595) college students of different universities and colleges. Eighty-eight (88) items under eight (8) components were subjected to item analysis by identifying factors through a series of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Descriptive results were also calculated, as well as the exact reliability coefficient through split-half and Cronbach’s alpha. For the validity, content analysis was applied using two groups of experts who ascertain the suitability of each item in terms of content, relevance, clarity, appropriateness and their representations. They include three (3) experts who have a long experienced in comics industry and another three (3) experts in the field of college students’ self-concept formation. From the total of 88 items, 30 items were eliminated. However, the items that constitute the final form of the SCSS was concentrated into 55 items under six (6) factors upon post-analysis consideration. Statistical analysis revealed that the experts’ ratings were consistent and has high reliability with a generated r value of .894.The SCSS final form was administered to 809 respondents following the same procedures that were used for the preliminary form. The test scores were subjected to reliability facility, such as Alpha Coefficient and Split-Half, computing the reliability coefficients of the final form. Validity was established through convergent analysis, tested in a sample of 419 respondents who took the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS: 2) Adult Form. The test was found to have high reliability with r = .792.
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